Rechta Research

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Heleen over de Linden

Currently, Heleen over de Linden is writing her PhD thesis about the 2014 EU sanctions against Russia, Eastern-Ukraine and Crimea.

The thesis of Heleen consists of three parts: 1) the period before Victor Yanukovych, the former president of Ukraine, decided not to sign the association agreement, 2) the period of the Maidan protests and 3) the period as of March 2014 when Yanukovych left to Russia and EU sanctions came into force.

In November 2013 the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yanukovych, decided not to sign the association agreement with the European Union. The statement that he postponed signing, resulted in the Maidan protests in Kyiv for a period of three month’ starting on 21st November 2013 and ending officially on 21st February 2014. Two days later Yanukovych left the country and two weeks later Yanukovych and other Ukrainian officials became subject to EU restrictive measures.

Heleen over de Linden describes the historical developments in Ukraine over the above mentioned period from a legal point of view. The first two chapters of her research consist of the analysis of the agreements and treaties applicable between Ukraine and the EU and Ukraine and Russia. Taking into account the much criticized specifics of Ukrainian law at that time, the interpretation of the agreements and the willingness to sign the association agreement with the EU, resulted in unbridgeable legal issues. The EU promoted the rule-of-law in a country where the “sovetskaya prokuratura” was still alive. This reality resulted in challenging dilemma’s. The third chapter of the research concerns the first round of EU sanctions (in force as of 6 March 2014). These sanctions are the result of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and based upon decisions of the Council of the EU. Yanukovych and his entourage extensively and fruitless made use of the annulment procedures before the Court of Justice in Luxemburg. The fact that the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights is applicable on these political high sensitive procedures, resulted in a legally interesting friction between theory and practise.

Latest publications:

News about the sanctions against Crimea, July 2018 (booklet)

Crimea bridge, made possible by Dutch companies, July 2018 (NRC Handelsblad)

Scientific Publications.

European Foreign Affairs Review

The Court of Justice’s Difficulty with Reviewing Smart Sanctions as Illustrated by Rosneft

Volume 24 (2019) / Issue 1, pp. 27-42

This article analyses the European Court of Justice (The General Court of the EU (formerly the Court of First Instance) in Luxembourg, hereafter ‘the Court’.) judgment of 13 September 2018 on Rosneft (Case T-715/14) (The Rosneft T-715/14 includes more than one applicant: Rosneft, RN-Shelf-Arctic, RN-Shelf-Far East, RN-Exploration and Tagulskoe, together referred to as ‘Rosneft’.) in the light of the obligation to state reasons. Rosneft claimed an infringement by the Council (The Council of the European Union, ‘the Council’.) on its obligation to make such statement under Article 41 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (‘The Charter’). The Court concluded that the reasons given by the Council were sufficient (T-715/14 Rosneft paragraph 127). The article will compare the reasoning of the Council and Court with the obligation to state reasons as interpreted in other Russian oil and banking sector judgments, in general and in asset-freeze cases (‘In general’ has to be read to mean ‘not in EU common foreign security policy (CFSP) cases’.). According to Rosneft, the rule of law is substituted with the rule of politics.

Read the article

Popular Publications.

Krimbrug, mogelijk gemaakt door Nederland

Krimbrug, mogelijk gemaakt door Nederland

NRC, Saturday 21 July & Sunday 22 July 2018

Ook Nederlandse bedrijven werkten mee aan de omstreden Krimbrug. Maar wisten ze waar ze aan begonnen?

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Sancties waren goed, maar toezicht faalde

'Sancties waren goed, maar toezicht faalde'

De Gelderlander, Saturday 7 juli 2018

De Russische media steken de draak met de Europese sancties voor de Krimbrug. Die werken voor geen meter. De westerse bedrijven staan in de rij om mee te werken aan dit ‘grootse’ project. En als voorbeeld wordt er vervolgens een hele waslijst aan Europese en Amerikaanse bedrijven genoemd die een graantje mee zouden pikken op de Krim.

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Strafrechtelijk onderzoek naar zeven Nederlandse bedrijven wegens betrokkenheid bij een brug naar De Krim

Strafrechtelijk onderzoek naar zeven Nederlandse bedrijven wegens betrokkenheid bij een brug naar De Krim

Trouw, 4 May 2018

De zeven Nederlandse bedrijven die het Openbaar Ministerie nu strafrechtelijk onderzoekt omdat ze betrokken waren bij de bouw van de omstreden Russische brug naar schiereiland De Krim zijn vermoedelijk slechts het topje van de ijsberg.

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Brug naar de Krim

Brug naar de Krim

FD, 23 September 2017

In reactie op het artikel van 2 september 2017, waarin werd gesteld dat twee Nederlandse bouwbedrijven betrokken zijn geweest bij de bouw van de Kertsjbrug van Rusland naar de Krim, is in Nederland onduidelijkheid ontstaan over de vraag wat wel en niet onder de sancties valt.

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News about the sanctions against Crimea

News about the sanctions against Crimea

H.M.A over de Linden, Rechta research, July 2018

The Kerch bridge, Dutch companies who assisted mr. Putin to build the bridge, and mr. Rotenberg.

Read the booklet
Actualiteiten over de sancties inzake de Krim

Actualiteiten over de sancties inzake de Krim

H.M.A over de Linden, Rechta research, July 2018

In het eerste MEMO dat in de serie sancties (beperkende maatregelen) verscheen (ultimo 2014) was er niets méér duidelijk dan dat er vier rondes sancties waren afgekondigd en dat de sanctieverordeningen op bepaalde momenten werden uitgebreid of aangepast. Er waren nog geen publiekelijk bekende overtredingen en er waren nog geen gerechtelijke uitspraken. In de afgelopen vier jaar is er veel gebeurd, zowel op het niveau van overtredingen als in de jurisprudentie.

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  • 1985-1991

    Russian language and literature, UvA, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Heleen over de Linden studied Russian language and literature at the University of Amsterdam. During the year 1988 she studied one year at the Pushkin Institute in Moscow. In 1991 she received her Master’s degree. In the same year she was sworn to the Amsterdam Court as translator Russian language. During her study Russian, Heleen founded the student travel agency Bolsjoj Reizen, which company she developed after her studies into a professional tour operator. She alienated the company in 1997 to a Dutch specialist. Anno 2018 the company still exists. As a result of her study Russian, Heleen over de Linden speaks and reads Russian fluently. In the last decade of the former century Heleen over de Linden resided on a regular basis in Russia. In the year 1998 she lived with her Dutch husband and two children one year in the Russian country side and assisted to set up local companies.

  • 2000-2004

    Tax law, UvA, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    Heleen over de Linden studied Tax Law with the so called civil effect at the University of Amsterdam. At the end of 2004 she obtained her LLM degree. Her thesis she wrote at the well-known Law firm Baker & McKenzie in Amsterdam, at that time still located on the Leidseplein. The subject of her thesis was the Yukos criminal case against Khodorkovskiy, based on the assumption of tax evasion.

  • 2004-2006

    Tax lawyer, international taxation, Deloitte, Netherlands

    During her study and directly after having finished her study she worked at the Dutch headquarter of the well-known multinational Deloitte in Amsterdam as a tax consultant in the international tax practice. In the summer of 2005 she worked as an intern at Deloitte Moscow, just in front of the Red Square.

  • 2006-2009

    Internship Attorney-at-law, Netherlands

    In the year 2006 Heleen over de Linden has been sworn as Attorney-at-Law at the court of Haarlem. During her internship over the period of three years she worked in the general law practise with a focus on litigation in the fields of SME, tax law and family law. When Heleen obtained her so called "internship certificate" she set up her own law firm in the city enter of Amsterdam.

  • 2009-current

    Rechta Advocatuur, attorney-at-law, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Since 2009 Heleen over de Linden has her own law practise, located in the so called Historical canal belt of Amsterdam. As attorney-at-law she has a general law practice with a focus on Russian and Russian speaking SME clients. As of the year 2014 Heleen specializes in the EU sanctions against Russia, the Crimea and Eastern-Ukraine. Heleen over de Linden assists persons and companies who need a consultation about the do's and don’ts with respect to the EU sanctions.

  • 2015-2019

    University of Groningen, The Netherlands

    In September 2015 Heleen started to write her PhD about the sanctions against Russia, Crimea and Eastern-Ukraine. The sceduled ending date is end 2019. A short summary of the research project you can find in the "find more about" section.

EDUCATION Heleen over de Linden
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Contact. Skype: heleenamsterdam1 Tel. +31 (0) 20-4033623 Fax. +31 (0) 84-7221445
  • 1017 WK Amsterdam
  • The Netherlands